By definition, a photovoltaic cell is a semiconductor diode which changes the sunlight falling on it to a DC electricity.They are also known as solar cells and work best with visible light. There are other cells that are capable of working with infrared and UV as well. Silicon is mostly used in in the manufacture.
There are two types namely, the crystalline and thin-film types.Into their pros and cons, the crystalline form is of high efficiency but its price is very high. This is due to the increased cost of production and the raw materials.The thin-film type is of low price, light weight and more popular.To the negative side, the cell is of low efficiency.
Photovoltaic effect is what rules the functioning in the electrical device. People have realized the benefit in utilizing solar energy which has led to advancement of this field of technology.It is widely used because it is environmentally friendly. Sunlight is always available especially in the tropical regions.They provide access to unlimited energy and its maintenance is easy and cheap.
The whole thing works by involving a few chemical properties of substances. The material used in the construction contains two chemical bands, that is the valence and the conduction bands.When the electrons in the valence band are provided with sufficient energy for them to overcome the energy gap between the two bands, they can jump into the conduction band and generate an electric current.
Light is transmitted in energy particles known as photons. These contain various levels of energy which correspond to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. Photons are either reflected, absorbed or pass through the photocell. Only those that are absorbed cause an effect.When this occurs energy is transferred to the electrons and they get excited and they get into the conduction band.That which is left is an hole which is then filled by another electron from the neighborhood and the process continues.This causes a direct current electricity to flow ta an external circuit.
The intensity and wavelength of the incident light to the solar cell are the only factors that determine the amount of current produced. If the intensity is high, more photons fall onto the cell and more electrons will flow making the current large.The frequency of the radiation will also determine whether photovoltaic effect will occur or not. The minimum frequency is known as the threshold frequency.
When the sunlight incident is reflected more, the efficiency of the cell drops. To correct this, an anti-reflective material is used in order to absorb as much sunlight as possible. The silicon material is protected by the transparent material that cover the upper side which face the sun.
A big solar panel is made so that the area of contact with the incident radiation is large. This is achieved by connecting individual cells to one another in series to form a module. The modules are then interconnected in a parallel-series manner to make arrays.
A photovoltaic cell can be applied in a number of areas, for example in recharging a device which requires a constant charge refreshing. The DC electricity produced can be fed into inverters in order to have an AC output. The energy can be stored in batteries for a latter use.These cells are manufactured allover the world but the leading manufacturers are China and the United States. The devices have a relatively long lifespan of approximately 20 years but their out depreciates as time goes. It is very economical.
You know you are working with the leading designer and manufacturer of CPV cells when you choose Amonix. Finding the most effective and efficient Photovoltaic cells will be easy when you work with this knowledgeable and experienced group of professionals.